The Third Edition of Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders will be released this October.
The very first thing I should say is that I think that General Practitioners (GPs, or family physicians, in case the term baffles) are a fine bunch of people, as a whole. This is the same thing that I would say about most groups of healthcare workers (including my own profession). The work that GPs do is demanding and takes a much broader knowledge and skills base than most professionals will ever need or achieve. They are the face of the healthcare system for most patients and the pressure on them is immense. Indeed, in the UK, they are now being tasked with commissioning healthcare too – as if the demands of delivering and channelling physical and mental healthcare for a nation were not sufficient …
This paper is open access. Go take a look! Academics debates with facts and data and stuff. Seems like a good read!
Thanks for the input anon! I am sorry to hear your stomach lining tore :/
Among people I know with bulimia, as well as what I’ve just casually observed online, there’s a lot of variation in the medical complications from bingeing/purging behaviours. Some people have perfect teeth after 10 years of b/ping while others need thousands dollars worth of dental work after only a year or two of purging. GI issues vary a lot as well.
1. Brushing teeth after purging is actually not advised.
Over time, contact with gastric acid wears down enamel on the lingual and occlusal surfaces of teeth, resulting in dental caries and periodontal disease. Until they can give up purging, patients should be instructed to rinse with mouthwash or water immediately after vomiting to reduce the acidity in the mouth. We recommend that patients not brush their teeth after vomiting, because brushing can deliver acid to otherwise unreachable surfaces and thus worsen tooth erosion. For patients who are determined to brush after vomiting, a bicarbonate toothpaste might mitigate harm.
(Dickstein et al., 2014)
And this from Hermont et al. (2013):
When referring to the possible association of oral hygiene habits and EDs as erosion corisk factors, it is important to stress that especially if the tooth brushing is carried out in conjunction with an ongoing acidic attack on the surfaces of the teeth, its erosive potential is even greater once the softened tooth surface provoked by the acidic challenge needs about an hour in the presence of saliva to remineralize, and so be capable of resisting to the abrasion provoked by the tooth brushing.
So if you do brush, be really gentle. I tend to rinse my mouth after purging and then wait a bit before brushing very gently. Sometimes I just swish around some water with toothpaste in my mouth so that I am not actually rubbing anything into my teeth.
2. I’m not sure what you meant by “chronic via DSM V definition” because as far as I am aware, the DSM-5 doesn’t define what chronic is, but this is a minor point :-).
A study published today has confirmed a link between antipsychotic medication and a slight, but measureable, decrease in brain volume in patients with schizophrenia. For the first time, researchers have been able to examine whether this decrease is harmful for patients’ cognitive function and symptoms, and noted that over a nine year follow-up, this decrease did not appear to have any effect.
As we age, our brains naturally lose some of their volume – in other words, brain cells and connections. This process, known as atrophy, typically begins in our thirties and continues into old age. Researchers have known for some time that patients with schizophrenia lose brain volume at a faster rate than healthy individuals, though the reason why is unclear.
Now, in a study published in the open access journal PLOS ONE, a team of researchers from the University of Oulu, Finland, and the University of Cambridge has identified the rate of decrease in both healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. They also documented where in the brain schizophrenia patients have more atrophy, and have examined links between atrophy and antipsychotic medication.
By comparing brain scans of 33 patients with schizophrenia with 71 control subjects over a period of 9 years – from age 34 to 43 – the researchers were able to show that schizophrenia patients lost brain volume at a rate of 0.7% each year. The control participants lost brain volume at a rate of 0.5% per year.
Scientists have previously speculated that antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia may be linked to this decrease in brain volume. Today’s research confirms this association, showing that the rate of decrease in volume was greater when the dose of medication was higher. However, the mechanisms behind this – and whether it was in fact the medication that was causing this greater loss of tissue – are not clear. Some researchers have previously argued that whilst older antipsychotic medications might cause brain volume decreases, newer antipsychotic medications may protect against these decreases. However, today’s research suggests that both classes of antipsychotic medication are associated with similar declines in brain volume.
The researchers also looked at whether there was any link between the volume of brain lost and the severity of symptoms or loss of cognitive function, but found no effect.
Professor Juha Veijola from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Oulu, Finland says: “We all lose some brain tissue as we get older, but people with schizophrenia lose it at a faster rate. We’ve shown that this loss seems to be linked to the antipsychotic medication people are taking. Research like this where patients are studied for many years can help to develop guidelines about when clinicians can reduce the dosage of antipsychotic medication in the long term treatment of people with schizophrenia.”
“It’s important to stress that the loss of brain volume doesn’t appear to have any effect on people over the nine year follow-up we conducted, and patients should not stop their medication on the basis of this research,” adds Dr Graham Murray from the Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and the Department of Psychiatry at University of Cambridge. “A key question in future will be to examine whether there is any effect of this loss of brain volume later in life. We need more research in larger studies with longer follow-ups to evaluate the significance of these brain changes.”
We report a case of anorexia nervosa, who presented with Wernicke’s encephalopathy and progressed to Korsakoff’s syndrome. Knowledge, awareness, and early intervention of anorexia nervosa by mental health professionals can prevent development of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
This short paper is open access.
via Invitation to Psychology
What do you do when you feel angry? Do you tend to brood and sulk, collecting your righteous complaints like acorns for the winter, or do you erupt, hurling your wrath upon anyone or anything at hand? Do you discuss your feelings when you have calmed down? …
One of the most revealing, in-depth early shows to have been nationally broadcast about OCD, imho. Unfortunately, this unedited (and more insightful, imho) f…
“Suffering usually relates to wanting things to be different from the way they are.”
– Allan Lokos
Everybody suffers. But much of our psychological suffering occurs as a result of our beliefs about how we think life “should” be, or how we would ideally like it to be. Often, it is…
Our latest Beck Institute Blog post takes a look at a recent study in which researchers compared mental imagery in patients with Bipolar Disorder and Unipolar Depression.
By better examining our thinking through a more scientific process and softening our internal and external response to failure, we are better able to continue our journeys in personal growth in order to advance ourselves, those around us and, hopeful…
This paper is open access.(via scienceofeds)
Minnow Films would like to talk to young people who are willing to share their thoughts and experiences of self-harm and eating disorders, for a Channel 4 documentary.
The programme will explore the experiences of young people and the role of the online world. It will look at the attractions and the risks of self-harm and so called ‘pro-ana’ websites, so Minnow Films would particularly like to speak to people who have some experience of the online communities that exist around self-harm or eating disorders.
At this early stage, the conversation would be an opportunity for you and Minnow Films to discuss the project in detail and hear your thoughts. Conversations would be confidential and non-committal - you don’t have to agree to participate in the film.
Minnow Films is an award-winning documentary company with extensive experience in making programmes about sensitive subjects.
If the above interests you, and you’re a young person living in the UK, email Wedge@lifesigns.org.uk and we will pass on your details to Minnow Films.
You don’t have to agree to do the documentary, you can ask questions, and then Harriet from Minnow Films and you can talk on the phone or meet (probably in London).
Think about what it would mean for you and your loved ones for you to appear on TV. Talk it over with someone.
You may notice that this is another request for ‘young’ people. LifeSIGNS is committed to supporting people of all ages, but programme producers seem to have to make programmes for very specific demographics.
This was posted on 21st July 2014, so should be considered ‘out of date’ by the end of August 2014.
Photo credit: Susan Adams.
The goal of the present article was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology.
We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in…