Some people recall a dream every morning, whereas others rarely recall one. A team led by Perrine Ruby, an Inserm Research Fellow at the Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (Inserm/CNRS/Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1), has studied the brain activity of these two types of dreamers in order to understand the differences between them. In a study published in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology, the researchers show that the temporo-parietal junction, an information-processing hub in the brain, is more active in high dream recallers. Increased activity in this brain region might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, thereby facilitating the encoding of dreams in memory.
The reason for dreaming is still a mystery for the researchers who study the difference between “high dream recallers,” who recall dreams regularly, and “low dream recallers,” who recall dreams rarely. In January 2013 (work published in the journal Cerebral Cortex), the team led by Perrine Ruby, Inserm researcher at the Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, made the following two observations: “high dream recallers” have twice as many time of wakefulness during sleep as “low dream recallers” and their brains are more reactive to auditory stimuli during sleep and wakefulness. This increased brain reactivity may promote awakenings during the night, and may thus facilitate memorisation of dreams during brief periods of wakefulness.
In this new study, the research team sought to identify which areas of the brain differentiate high and low dream recallers. They used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to measure the spontaneous brain activity of 41 volunteers during wakefulness and sleep. The volunteers were classified into 2 groups: 21 “high dream recallers” who recalled dreams 5.2 mornings per week in average, and 20 “low dream recallers,” who reported 2 dreams per month in average. High dream recallers, both while awake and while asleep, showed stronger spontaneous brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area of the brain involved in attention orienting toward external stimuli.
The South African neuropsychologist Mark Solms had observed in earlier studies that lesions in these two brain areas led to a cessation of dream recall. The originality of the French team’s results is to show brain activity differences between high and low dream recallers during sleep and also during wakefulness.
“Our results suggest that high and low dream recallers differ in dream memorization, but do not exclude that they also differ in dream production. Indeed, it is possible that high dream recallers produce a larger amount of dreaming than low dream recallers” concludes the research team.
Calling out unsubstantiated neuroimaging posts, episode 638463
A middle school student I know came home from school with the task to recreate a medieval fort out of cake. I expect the History teacher thought this was a creative and engaging activity. This particular…
Research finds that homework doesn’t improve learning outcomes in primary school, and has a weak link to improved outcomes in junior high school. Those improvements are connected to parental involvement – but parents who are keen supporters of homework may be disappointed to hear that their positive contribution is largely just ensuring their children hand in their homework.
I wouldn’t generalize *all* homework as bad/ineffective. I mean, you have to learn the material somehow, and it’s a good start when the student doesn’t study. But there is definitely a great deal of busywork homework that is just dumb as fuck.
The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) is the leading source of free, confidential, and practical information on workforce accommodations and the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
If you live in the US (and maybe even if you don’t), this website is invaluable. I’ve posted it before and I’m sure I will post it again. It has tons of information on how to discuss ADA accommodations with your employer (or school), what kind of accommodations might be appropriate for different kinds of disabilities and impairments, and which laws apply when and what that means for you. It’s incredible.
Even if you’re not working or in school, it’s helpful to search their SOAR database for technologies and strategies that might make your everyday life a little easier.
Mindfulness in Plain English
by Venerable H. Gunaratana Mahathera
So there’s an entire guide to meditation on tumblr: what it is, how to do it, what happens when problems/distractions/arise, etc.
Parkinsonism a Major Mortality Risk Factor in Schizophrenia
By Daniel M. Keller, PhD
There may be differences between different antipsychotic medications and their possible contribution. ”Specific treatments with clozapine or olanzapine could be related to more comorbidity and mortality,”
Compared with control individuals, patients with schizophrenia have significantly more physical comorbidity, including the novel finding that Parkinsonism is a major risk factor for inhospital mortality in this population, new research shows.
A case-control study of general hospital admissions showed that the most common comorbidity among patients with schizophrenia was type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twenty more physical diseases were also more prevalent, many of them associated with diabetic complications. Interestingly, Parkinsonism was a major risk factor for inhospital mortality in schizophrenia.
The research was a collaboration between investigators in Germany and the United Kingdom. Speaking here at the 22nd European Congress of Psychiatry (EPA), Dieter Schoepf, MD, of the Department of Psychiatry at the University Hospital of Bonn, Germany, said that the study population comprised all admissions to 3 general hospitals in Manchester, United Kingdom (N = 369,488) between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012.
It included 1418 patients who met diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia at initial admission according to the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Control patients were 14,180 age- and gender-matched hospital patients at initial admission.
Five Major Findings
The study produced 5 major findings related to comorbidities affecting hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. First, they had a nearly 2-fold increased hospital-based mortality rate (18.0%) compared with control patients (9.7%) during the observation period. And the schizophrenic patients died at a younger mean age (64.4 ± 1.0 vs 66.2 ± 0.4 years, respectively).
Second, "schizophrenics as compared to controls had a more severe course of illness and a shorter survival after their initial hospitalization," Dr. Schoepf reported. For the entire group of schizophrenic patients, survival averaged 1895 ± 35.1 days vs 2161 ± 11.6 days for all control patients. For deceased patients in each group, survival averaged 951.4 ± 62.9 vs 1030 ± 28.0 days, respectively.
Third, patients with schizophrenia had substantially more physical diseases. Among 21 diseases with increased prevalence among the study population compared with control patients, odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 5.3 for fracture of the femur neck to 1.3 for asthma.
"T2DM was the most common disproportionally increased physical comorbidity," Dr. Schoepf said. Its prevalence among schizophrenic patients was double that of the control patients (17.4% vs 8.5%; OR = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 - 2.6).
The fourth major finding was that among schizophrenic patients who died, T2DM was the most common physical comorbidity, contributing to about one third (31.4%) of those deaths, compared with 16.9% of deceased control patients.
Parkinsonism affected 1.6% of the study group vs 0.4% of control patients (OR = 4.7; 95% CI, 2.8 - 7.7). It was present in 5.5% of deceased study group patients but in only 1.5% of control patients who died.
Excluding Parkinsonism, a major risk factor for death among the schizophrenic group, the researchers developed a model that identified 9 other mortality risk factors that “had an equal impact on inhospital death in schizophrenics as compared to controls,” Dr. Schoepf reported.
Although the prevalence of these risk factors differed between the 2 groups, their impact on inhospital mortality did not differ when these comorbidities were present in patients in either group. The comorbidities were as follows: T2DM, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, bronchitis, iron-deficiency anemia, type 1 diabetes, ischemic stroke, nonspecific renal failure, and alcoholic liver disease.
Speaking with Medscape Medical News, session chair Guillermo Lahera Forteza, MD, PhD, professor of psychiatry at the University of Alcalá, Spain, who was not involved in the study, praised it as "impressive…especially the relationship between Parkinsonism and mortality in patients with schizophrenia. I was really shocked about this figure." He added that the relationship between T2DM and mortality has been well known, but the finding about Parkinsonism is something new.
Dr. Lahera Forteza said he has questions about the causes of death in cases in which comorbidities exist. There may be differences between different antipsychotic medications and their possible contribution.
"Specific treatments with clozapine or olanzapine could be related to more comorbidity and mortality," he said, but Dr. Schoepf noted that there are not enough data from this study on this point.
Dr. Lahera Forteza advises physicians “to restudy every treatment when the patient has this kind of comorbidity ― to re-evaluate and reassess the pharmacological treatment in every patient.” In addition, physicians should recognize the impact of lifestyle on these patients, who often smoke, drink alcohol, and do not get enough exercise. Negative symptoms, cognitive impairment, and social stigma can all affect lifestyle and contribute to or exacerbate physical comorbidities.
Dr. Schoepf and Dr. Lahera Forteza report no relevant financial relationships. The study had no commercial funding.
For more mental health news, Click Here to access the Serious Mental Illness Blog
Help comes when the person identifies the change they want and starts to believe it can actually happen. Whether it is overcoming an impossible family situation, making a career or study change, standing up to an oppressor, gaining relief from chronic physical pain, igniting creative inspiration, feeling less alone, or beginning to value their self worth, at the root of suicidal feelings is often powerlessness to change your life – not giving up on life itself."
these are incredible words. I have never been able to articulate this.
read the whole article. it’s absolutely heartbreaking. this is LIFE AND DEATH.
In extreme cases, the obsessive and compulsive characteristics of ON become pathological and dominate a person’s life. The preoccupation with quality of food and eating healthy comprise the principal elements of this disorder. The pathological obsession with biologically pure food and shops which sell it leads to a special lifestyle. Stringent dietary restrictions and eating plans, combined with a personality and attitude of superiority and obsessive-phobic behavioral characteristics define the core of ON.
In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content…
I used to be way guilty of memory biases. If I was depressed, then I overestimated how long I’d been depressed for. If my mood was improved, then I overestimated how long I’d been “up”. Takes a lot of self-awareness to overcome them memory biases.
The Placebo Effect
The placebo effect is one of the strangest and least understood phenomenons found in human physiology and psychology. The placebo effect happens when you decide a therapy will make you better and your belief makes it so. But is the placebo effect real or is it in your head?
Self Injury Awareness Day Links and Resources from LifeSIGNS
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Aka suppress all feelings and follows your parents life plan for you.
So, homophobic asshole: check.
So Mason hosted Laverne Cox last week (IT WAS AWESOME) and the grad students who are in charge of campus suicide prevention made a banner saying “What does sexual/gender identity mean to you?” and had students write their responses. There’s a picture of us holding up the filled-in banner on Facebook.
Some older guy commented on the photo: “A person’s sexual or gender identity does not have to be determined by feelings. Instead a person should guide his or her life by true principles. Self-concept is self-determined. Choose wisely.”
I’m having some trouble with reading comprehension: he’s being a homophobic asshole, right?